All Items 3,180 Collection 3 Archives & Special Collections 3,119 Emily Dickinson Collection 853 The Octagon 61 Contributor 20 Hitchcock, Edward, 1793-1864 1,421 Dickinson, Emily, 1830-1886 851 Amherst College 422 Silliman, Benjamin, 1779-1864 230 Hitchcock, Orra White, 1796-1863 148 Hitchcock, Edward, 1828-1911 90 Amherst, Jeffery Amherst, Baron, 1717-1797 89 Amherst College. Class of 1850. Dickinson 78 Dickinson, Austin, d. 1895 78 Eisenberg, Pablo 71 Amherst College. Class of 1849. Hitchcock 65 Great Britain. Army 61 Todd, Mabel Loomis, 1856-1932 61 Dickinson, Lavinia Norcross, 1833-1899 55 Bowles, Samuel, 1826-1878 52 B.W. Thayer & Co. 34 Stearns, William A., (William Augustus), 1805-1876 32 Wordsworth, William, 1770-1850 32 Amherst College. Class of 1832. Lord 30 Lord, Otis P., (Otis Phillips), 1812-1884 30 show more 15 show fewer Location 20 Massachusetts 734 Amherst 379 United States 260 Great Britain 19 Europe 15 Iran 15 England 14 New England 12 New York (State) 10 Japan 8 Connecticut 6 Vermont 6 Conway 5 Deerfield 5 Germany 5 Rome 5 Connecticut River Valley 4 Italy 4 Kyoto 4 Middle East 4 show more 15 show fewer Topic 20 Correspondence 914 American poetry 504 Women poets, American 497 Poets, American 373 Sermons 357 Sermons, American 241 Geologists 228 Universities and colleges 197 Catalogs 195 Curricula 193 Registers 193 Christianity 172 Finance, Personal 166 Students 159 College yearbooks 158 Yearbooks 158 Archives 155 Outlines, syllabi, etc. 138 Pictorial works 102 Religious aspects 84 show more 15 show fewer Format 2 Pen and ink on linen 61 b&w prints 4 Part Of 16 Edward and Orra White Hitchcock Papers 1,487 Emily Dickinson Collection 853 Amherst College Catalogs 192 Amherst College Olios 158 Nelson Family Juvenilia Collection of Pamela Russell and Murray McClellan 109 Jeffery Amherst Collection 92 Younghee Kim-Wait (Class of 1982)/Pablo Eisenberg Collection of Native American Literature 71 Orra White Hitchcock Classroom Drawings 61 The Amherst College Octagon 60 William Wordsworth Manuscript Collection 32 Walt Whitman Collection 29 Manuscript Collection 27 Doshisha University Collection 5 Photograph Albums of the Great Mino-Owari (1891) and Great Kanto (1923) Earthquakes 2 Karl Loewenstein Papers 1 The Amherst College Open Octagon 1 show more 11 show fewer Genre 20 Correspondence 924 Poems 541 Sermons 356 Notes 221 Catalogs (documents) 193 Curricula 193 Yearbooks 158 Receipts (financial records) 118 Outlines (documents) 98 Children's literature 85 Scientific illustrations 71 Article 61 Book 60 Drawings (visual works) 44 Drafts (documents) 42 Lecture notes 40 Periodicals 39 Plates (illustrations) 36 Booklets 35 Portraits 34 show more 15 show fewer Natural bizbenzoquinoline derivatives protect zebrafish lateral line sensory hair cells from aminoglycoside toxicity Trapani, Josef G. (Department of Biology, Amherst College) Moderate to severe hearing loss affects 360 million people worldwide and most often results from damage to sensory hair cells. Hair cell damage can result from aging, genetic mutations, excess noise exposure, and certain medications including aminoglycoside antibiotics. Aminoglycosides are effective at treating infections associated with cystic fibrosis and other life-threatening conditions such as sepsis, but cause hearing loss in 20–30% of patients. It is therefore imperative to develop new therapies to combat hearing loss and allow safe use of these potent antibiotics. We approach this drug discovery question using the larval zebrafish lateral line because zebrafish hair cells are structurally and functionally similar to mammalian inner ear hair cells and respond similarly to toxins. We screened a library of 502 natural compounds in order to identify novel hair cell protectants. Our screen identified four bisbenzylisoquinoline derivatives: berbamine, E6 berbamine, hernandezine, and isotetrandrine, each of which robustly protected hair cells from aminoglycoside-induced damage. Using fluorescence microscopy and electrophysiology, we demonstrated that the natural compounds confer protection by reducing antibiotic uptake into hair cells and showed that hair cells remain functional during and after incubation in E6 berbamine. We also determined that these natural compounds do not reduce antibiotic efficacy. Together, these natural compounds represent a novel source of possible otoprotective drugs that may offer therapeutic options for patients receiving aminoglycoside treatment. Natural bizbenzoquinoline derivatives protect zebrafish lateral line sensory hair cells from aminoglycoside toxicity Recording field potentials from zebrafish larvae during escape responses Trapani, Josef G. (Department of Biology, Amherst College) Among vertebrates, startle responses are a ubiquitous method for alerting, and avoiding or escaping from alarming or dangerous stimuli. In zebrafish larvae, fast escape behavior is easily evoked through either acoustic or tactile stimuli. For example, a light touch to the head will excite trigeminal neurons that in turn excite a large reticulospinal neuron in the hindbrain called the Mauthner cell (M-cell). The M-cell action potential then travels down the contralateral trunk of the larva exciting motoneurons, which subsequently excite the entire axial musculature, producing a large amplitude body bend away from the source of the stimulus. This body conformation is known as the “C-bend” due to the shape of the larva during the behavior. As a result of the semi-synchronized activation of the M-cell, the population of motor neurons, and the axial trunk muscles, a large field potential is generated and can be recorded from free-swimming or fixed-position larvae. Undergraduate laboratories that record field potentials during escape responses in larval zebrafish are relatively simple to setup and allow students to observe and study the escape reflex circuit. Furthermore, by testing hypotheses, analyzing data and writing journal-style laboratory reports, students have multiple opportunities to learn about many neuroscience topics including vertebrate reflexes; sensory transduction; synaptic-, neuro-, and muscle-physiology; the M-cell mediated escape response; and the zebrafish as a model organism. Here, we detail the equipment, software, and recording setup necessary to observe field potentials in an undergraduate teaching lab. Additionally, we discuss potential advanced laboratory exercises and pedagogical outcomes. Finally, we note possible low-cost alternatives for recording field potentials. Recording field potentials from zebrafish larvae during escape responses Opening the door to cloud-cuckoo-land: Hempel and Kuhn on rationality George, Alexander (Department of Philosophy, Amherst College) A reading is offered of Carl Hempel’s and Thomas Kuhn’s positions on, and disagreements about, rationality in science that relates these issues to the debate between W.V. Quine and Rudolf Carnap on the analytic/synthetic distinction. Opening the door to cloud-cuckoo-land: Hempel and Kuhn on rationality So this is censorship: race, sex, and censorship in movies of the 1920s and 1930s Couvares, Francis G., 1948- (Department of History) The curious case of So This Is Africa (Columbia, 1933) shows that both Hollywood’s in-house censors and state and local censors took seriously cinematic violations of racial and sexual norms. This spoof of ‘‘jungle’’ films exploited audience interest in a cycle of fictional and nonfictional depictions of ‘‘primitive’’ life. These films claimed partial exemption from taboos against sexual and racial boundary-crossing, and usually showed unclothed ‘‘native’’ women. But So This Is Africa went further. However farcical, its suggestions of adultery, interracial sex, homosexuality, and even bestiality raised an unusually large storm among the censors. Cut by one-third, the film still outraged many and helped precipitate the industry’s creation of the Production Code Administration, designed to police the screen more tightly So this is censorship: race, sex, and censorship in movies of the 1920s and 1930s Setting the stage for data science: Integration of data management skills in introductory and second courses in statistics Horton, Nicholas J. (Department of Mathematics and Statistics) Many have argued that statistics students need additional facility to express statistical computations. By introducing students to commonplace tools for data management, visualization, and reproducible analysis in data science, and applying these to real-world scenarios, we prepare them to think statistically. In an era of increasingly big data, it is imperative that students develop data-related capacities, beginning with the introductory course. We believe that the integration of these precursors to data science into our curricula—early and often—will help statisticians be part of the dialogue regarding Big Data and Big Questions. Setting the stage for data science: Integration of data management skills in introductory and second courses in statistics Quine's indeterminacy: A paradox resolved and a problem revealed George, Alexander (Department of Philosophy) Quine's indeterminacy: A paradox resolved and a problem revealed Linguistic practice and its discontents: Quine and Davidson on the source of sense George, Alexander (Department of Philosophy) A rich tradition in philosophy takes truths about meaning to be wholly determined by how language is used; meanings do not guide use of language from behind the scenes, but instead are fixed by such use. Linguistic practice, on this conception, exhausts the facts to which the project of understanding another must be faithful. But how is linguistic practice to be characterized? No one has addressed this question more seriously than W. V. Quine, who sought for many years to formulate a conception of use that makes sense of certain key features of meaning. The nature, development, and adequacy of his formulations are here explored. All are found to fall short of what he wanted to achieve. Donald Davidson has introduced significant variations on Quine's project. The resulting position is also examined, but likewise found to be problematic. Finally, a neo-Quinean conception is sketched, as are some of the problems such a view would have to surmount. Linguistic practice and its discontents: Quine and Davidson on the source of sense Black political and popular culture: The legacy of Richard Iton Henderson, Aneeka A. (Department of Sexuality, Women's and Gender Studies) Richard Iton's In Search of the Black Fantastic: Popular Culture in the Post-Civil Rights Era (2008) is one of the most important texts to examine post–Civil Rights black political and popular culture. This article uses Iton's paradigm for examining the enduring relationship between black political and popular culture and extends it in order to analyze the continuities through the political economy and cultural production of marriage in the United States. With In Search of the Black Fantastic as a foundational text, I reveal how African American political identity is increasingly defined by marriage. Black political and popular culture: The legacy of Richard Iton Assessing eating disorder symptoms in adolescence: Is there a role for multiple informants? Horton, Nicholas J. (Department of Mathematics and Statistics) Objectives--Epidemiologic studies of adolescent psychiatric disorders often collect information from adolescents and parents, yet most eating disorder epidemiologic studies rely only on adolescent report. Methods--We studied the eating disorder symptom reports provided by 7,968 adolescents from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), and their parents, who were sent questionnaires at participants’ ages 14 and 16 years. Both adolescents and parents were asked questions about the adolescent's eating disorder symptoms, including binge eating, vomiting, laxative use, fasting, and thinness. We assessed the concordance of parent and adolescent report cross-sectionally using kappa coefficients, and further looked at how the symptom reports were predictive of adolescent body mass and composition measured at a clinical assessment at 17.5 years. Generalized estimating equations were used to model the symptom reports’ associations with risk factors and clinical outcomes. Results--Parents and adolescents were largely discordant on symptom reports cross-sectionally (kappas0.3), with the parent generally less likely to report bulimic symptoms than the adolescent but more likely to report thinness. Female adolescents were more likely to report bulimic symptoms than males (e.g., 2-4 times more likely to report binge eating), while prevalence estimates according to parent reports of female vs. male adolescents were similar. Both parent and adolescent symptom reports at ages 14 and 16 years were predictive of age-17.5 body mass and composition measures; parentally-reported binge eating was more strongly predictive of higher body mass and composition. Assessing eating disorder symptoms in adolescence: Is there a role for multiple informants? Data science in statistics curricula: Preparing students to "think with data" Horton, Nicholas J. (Department of Mathematics and Statistics) A growing number of students are completing undergraduate degrees in statistics and entering the work force as data analysts. In these positions, they are expected to understand how to utilize databases and other data warehouses, scrape data from Internet sources, program solutions to complex problems in multiple languages, and think algorithmically as well as statistically. These data science topics have not traditionally been a major component of undergraduate programs in statistics. Consequently, a curricular shift is needed to address additional learning outcomes. The goal of this paper is to motivate the importance of data science proficiency and to provide examples and resources for instructors to implement data science in their own statistics curricula. We provide case studies from seven institutions. These varied approaches to teaching data science demonstrate curricular innovations to address new needs. Also included here are examples of assignments designed for courses that foster engagement of undergraduates with data and data science. Data science in statistics curricula: Preparing students to "think with data" R markdown: Integrating a reproducible analysis tool into introductory statistics Horton, Nicholas J. (Department of Mathematics and Statistics) Nolan and Temple Lang argue that “the ability to express statistical computations is an es- sential skill.” A key related capacity is the ability to conduct and present data analysis in a way that another person can understand and replicate. The copy-and-paste workflow that is an artifact of antiquated user-interface design makes reproducibility of statistical analysis more difficult, especially as data become increasingly complex and statistical methods become increasingly sophisticated. R Markdown is a new technology that makes creating fully-reproducible statistical analysis simple and painless. It provides a solution suitable not only for cutting edge research, but also for use in an introductory statistics course. We present experiential and statistical evidence that R Markdown can be used effectively in introductory statistics courses, and discuss its role in the rapidly-changing world of statistical computation. R markdown: Integrating a reproducible analysis tool into introductory statistics Differential dropout and bias in randomised controlled trials: when it matters and when it may not Horton, Nicholas J. (Department of Mathematics and Statistics) Dropout in randomised controlled trials is common and threatens the validity of results, as completers may differ from people who drop out. Differing dropout rates between treatment arms is sometimes called differential dropout or attrition. Although differential dropout can bias results, it does not always do so. Similarly, equal dropout may or may not lead to biased results. Depending on the type of missingness and the analysis used, one can get a biased estimate of the treatment effect with equal dropout rates and an unbiased estimate with unequal dropout rates. We reinforce this point with data from a randomised controlled trial in patients with renal cancer and a simulation study. Differential dropout and bias in randomised controlled trials: when it matters and when it may not Challenges and opportunities for statistics and statistical education: looking back, looking forward Nicholas J. Horton (Department of Mathematics and Statistics) The 175th anniversary of the ASA provides an opportunity to look back into the past and peer into the future. What led our forebears to found the association? What commonalities do we still see? What insights might we glean from their experiences and observations? I will use the anniversary as a chance to reflect on where we are now and where we are headed in terms of statistical education amidst the growth of data science. Statistics is the science of learning from data. By fostering more multivariable thinking, building data-related skills, and developing simulation-based problem solving, we can help to ensure that statisticians are fully engaged in data science and the analysis of the abundance of data now available to us. Challenges and opportunities for statistics and statistical education: looking back, looking forward Handling missing data in RCTs: A review of the top medical journals Horton, Nicholas J. (Department of Mathematics and Statistics) Background--Missing outcome data is a threat to the validity of treatment effect estimates in randomized controlled trials. We aimed to evaluate the extent, handling, and sensitivity analysis of missing data and intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in top tier medical journals, and compare our findings with previous reviews related to missing data and ITT in RCTs. Methods--Review of RCTs published between July and December 2013 in the BMJ, JAMA, Lancet, and New England Journal of Medicine, excluding cluster randomized trials and trials whose primary outcome was survival. Results--Of the 77 identified eligible articles, 73 (95%) reported some missing outcome data. The median percentage of participants with a missing outcome was 9% (range 0 – 70%). The most commonly used method to handle missing data in the primary analysis was complete case analysis (33, 45%), while 20 (27%) performed simple imputation, 15 (19%) used model based methods, and 6 (8%) used multiple imputation. 27 (35%) trials with missing data reported a sensitivity analysis. However, most did not alter the assumptions of missing data from the primary analysis. Reports of ITT or modified ITT were found in 52 (85%) trials, with 21 (40%) of them including all randomized participants. A comparison to a review of trials reported in 2001 showed that missing data rates and approaches are similar, but the use of the term ITT has increased, as has the report of sensitivity analysis. Conclusions--Missing outcome data continues to be a common problem in RCTs. Definitions of the ITT approach remain inconsistent across trials. A large gap is apparent between statistical methods research related to missing data and use of these methods in application settings, including RCTs in top medical journals. Handling missing data in RCTs: A review of the top medical journals Web-based alcohol screening and brief intervention for university students: A randomized trial Horton, Nicholas J. (Department of Mathematics and Statistics) Importance--Unhealthy alcohol use is a leading contributor to the global burden of disease, particularly among young people. Systematic reviews suggest efficacy of web-based alcohol screening and brief intervention and call for effectiveness trials in settings where it could be sustainably delivered. Objective--To evaluate a national web-based alcohol screening and brief intervention program. Main Outcomes and Measures--A fully automated 5-month follow-up assessment was conducted that measured 6 primary outcomes: consumption per typical occasion, drinking frequency, volume of alcohol consumed, an academic problems score, and whether participants exceeded medical guidelines for acute harm (binge drinking) and chronic harm (heavy drinking). A Bonferroni-corrected significance threshold of .0083 was used to account for the 6 comparisons and a sensitivity analysis was used to assess possible attrition bias. Conclusions and Relevance--A national web-based alcohol screening and brief intervention program produced no significant reductions in the frequency or overall volume of drinking or academic problems. There remains a possibility of a small reduction in the amount of alcohol consumed per typical drinking occasion. Web-based alcohol screening and brief intervention for university students: A randomized trial Making do with less: An introduction to compressed sensing Leise, Tanya L. (Department of Mathematics) This article offers an accessible but rigorous and essentially self-contained account of some of the central ideas in compressed sensing, aimed at nonspecialists and undergraduates who have had linear algebra and some probability. The basic premise is first illustrated by considering the problem of detecting a few defective items in a large set. We then build up the mathematical framework of compressed sensing, to show how combining efficient sampling methods with elementary ideas from linear algebra and a bit of approximation theory, optimization, and probability, allows the estimation of unknown quantities with far less sampling of data than traditional methods. Making do with less: An introduction to compressed sensing I hear, I forget. I do, I understand: a modified Moore-method mathematical statistics course Horton, Nicholas J. (Department of Mathematics and Statistics) Moore introduced a method for graduate mathematics instruction that consisted primarily of individual student work on challenging proofs (Jones 1977). Cohen (1992) described an adaptation with less explicit competition suitable for undergraduate students at a liberal arts college. This paper details an adaptation of this modified Moore-method to teach mathematical statistics, and describes ways that such an approach helps engage students and foster the teaching of statistics. Groups of students worked a set of 3 difficult problems (some theoretical, some applied) every two weeks. Class time was devoted to coaching sessions with the instructor, group meeting time, and class presentations. R was used to estimate solutions empirically where analytic results were intractable, as well as to provide an environment to undertake simulation studies with the aim of deepening understanding and complementing analytic solutions. Each group presented comprehensive solutions to complement oral presentations. Development of parallel techniques for empirical and analytic problem solving was an explicit goal of the course, which also attempted to communicate ways that statistics can be used to tackle interesting problems. The group problem solving component and use of technology allowed students to attempt much more challenging questions than they could otherwise solve. I hear, I forget. I do, I understand: a modified Moore-method mathematical statistics course Making sense of olive oil: Simple experiments to connect sensory observations with the underlying chemistry O'Hara, Patricia B., 1953- (Department of Chemistry) In the last decade, our understanding of the chemistry of olive oil has dramatically improved. Here, the essential chemistry of olive oil and its important minor constituents is described and related to the typical sensory categories used to rate and experience oils: color, aroma, bitterness, and pungency. We also describe experiments to explore some of the characteristics of olive oil related to its status as a new health food. Simple qualitative experiments on olive oil can be done in conjunction with tastings of the oil. First, we establish the relationship between the color of an object and the absorption of light by its molecular constituents using gummy candies and laser pointers. Then, the color of the various oils can be measured quantitatively using an iPhone app (Irodori). Illuminating the oil with a green laser produces a startling red fluorescence in the presence of the natural chlorophyll in some olive oils. Relatively straightforward colorimetric assays can reveal the presence of unsaturated fatty acids, healthy antioxidants such as phenols (unique to olive oils), contaminating peroxides, and the level of free fatty acid that is a telltale sign of poorly treated or stale oils. A final comparison of the sensory observations from tasting with the chemical and spectroscopic analysis provides an introduction to the science behind food standards and the sensitivity of our own sensory apparatus. Making sense of olive oil: Simple experiments to connect sensory observations with the underlying chemistry Teaching the next generation of statistics students to "think with data": Special issue on statistics and the undergraduate curriculum Horton, Nicholas J. (Department of Mathematics and Statistics) Teaching the next generation of statistics students to "think with data": Special issue on statistics and the undergraduate curriculum Rail trails and property values: is there an association? Horton, Nicholas J. (Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Amherst College) Rail trails and property values: is there an association?